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Prestonpans and Vicinity

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taken in a storm, however, when the fleet was wrecked, and the greater part of the army drowned. Charles returned to Paris disappointed but undismayed.
On the evening of 22nd June 1745, the Prince, disguised as a student of the Scottish College, and accompanied by the Marquis of Tullibardine, Sir Thomas Sherridan, the Prince's former tutor, Sir John M'Donald, an English clergyman named Kelly, Francis Strickland, an Englishman, and Aeneas M'Donald, Charles's valet, set out for Scotland. He arrived, but the expected rising of the clans was disappointing. So hopeless did success in the enterprise seem, that he was earnestly implored by Boisdale, brother to Clanranald, to return home.
The daring and resolute spirit shown by the Prince at this time won him many friends. Some urged him to seek succour from France, but he " preferred to owe his restoration not to foreigners, but to his own trusty Scots. " The first to rally round his standard were the Camerons, Stuarts of Appin, M'Donalds of Clanranald, Keppoch, Glengarry, and Glencoe. The Governor of Fort Augustus, suspecting what was going on, sent out two companies of raw English soldiers to where the Highlanders lay; but when they heard the skirl of the bagpipes, and beheld a threatening force in the way (a dozen of the M'Donalds of Keppoch, who opened a shower of musketry upon them), they turned and fled, but fell into the hands of Keppoch himself, with a larger body of Highlanders going to join the Prince. Thus the first blood was shed, and the first victory won in favour of the Prince.
On 19th August 1745, in the picturesque vale of Glenfinnan, by the old and feeble hands of Tullibardine, amid Highland cheers, and the warlike shriek of the pibroch, the royal standard was unfurled.
A declaration from the Prince's father was read, reciting his wrongs, and exhorting his subjects to return to their allegiance, under the regency of his son. Charles continuing said, " I have come to conquer or perish at the head of my loyal Scots, who, I well know, have resolved to live or die with me. "
Sir John Cope, aware of what was going on, began to prepare for the struggle. His troops, consisting of Gardiner's and Hamilton's dragoons, three regiments of infantry, several companies of other regiments, together with his artillery, which comprised two mortars and six field pieces, he assembled at Stirling.

Cope, proceeding northwards, offered as he went a reward of .£30,000 for the person of the Prince, dead or alive. The Prince offered in turn ,£30,000 for King George, dead or alive.
Cope, arriving at Fort Augustus, learned that the Highland army awaited him at the Devil's Staircase, twenty miles ahead, turned aside at Inverness, and left a clear path for the Prince to Edinburgh.
Several of the clans, from which Cope expected assistance, turned their backs upon him. Meantime the Prince, in great spirits, moved towards the city of Perth, his army gathering strength as it proceeded.
Charles had no difficulty in getting to Edinburgh, and attended by the Duke of Perth and Lord Elcho, he entered the city on the 17th, took possession of Holyrood House, encamping his army in the King's Park.
On the 15th Cope arrived off Dunbar. By the 17th he had all unshipped, and leaving Dunbar on the 19th, set out for Edinburgh by way of Haddington.
The following order of battle was delivered to the commanding officers of the several corps by the Earl of Loudan before leaving Haddington :—
General Sir John Cope. Brigadier Fowke.
Colonel Gardiner. Colonel Lascelles.
2 Squadrons Dragoons.—2 Pieces Cannon, Murray's.—2 Pieces
Cannon, Lascelles.
Lees' 2 Pieces Cannon, and Cohorn's 2 Squadrons Dragoons.
Corps de Reserve.
1 Squadron Dragoons.—Highland Volunteers. — 1 Squadron Dragoons.
The line of battle consisted of the following troops:—
5 Companies of Lee's on the right.
Murray's Regiment on the left.
8 Companies of Lascelles' Regiment, with
2 of Guise's in the centre.
2 Squadrons of Gardiner's Dragoons on the right, and
2 of Hamilton's on the left.
The corps de reserve consisted of:—
1 Squadron of Gardiner's on the right.
1 Squadron of Hamilton's on the left.
5 Companies of Highlanders, most of them very weak.
And Drummond, with the Volunteers in the centre.
Cope left Haddington early on the morning of the 20th, and, passing by way of the Setons and St Germains, arrived at Preston that same day.
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