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Prestonpans and Vicinity

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" ' May it please your Majesty, —
"' We, the chief heritors and others in the Highlands of Scotland, under subscribing, beg leave to express the joy of our hearts at your Majesty's happy accession to the crown of Great Britain. Your Majesty has the blood of our ancient monarchs in your veins and in your family; may that royal race ever continue to reign over us ! Your Majesty's princely virtues, and the happy prospect we have in your royal family of an uninterrupted succession of kings to sway the British sceptre, must extinguish those divisions and contests which in former times too much prevailed, and unite all who have the happiness to live under your Majesty into a firm obedience and loyalty to your Majesty's person, family, and government; and as our predecessors have for many ages had the honour to distinguish themselves by their loyalty, so we do most humbly assure your Majesty, that we will reckon it our honour steadfastly to adhere to you, and with our lives and our fortunes to support your crown and dignity against all opposers.
" ' Pardon us, great sir, to implore your royal protection against any who labour to misrepresent us, and who rather use their endeavours to create misunderstandings than to engage the hearts of your subjects to that loyalty and cheerful affectionate obedience which we owe and are ready to testify towards your Majesty.
" ' Under so excellent a king we are persuaded that we, and all your other peaceable faithful subjects, shall enjoy their just rights and liberties, and that our enemies shall not be able to hurt us with your Majesty, for whose royal favour we presume humbly to hope, as our forefathers were honoured with that of your Majesty's ancestors.
" ' Our mountains, though undervalued by some, are nevertheless acknowledged to have in all times been fruitful in producing hardy and gallant men; and such, we hope, shall never be wanting amongst us, who shall be ready to undergo all danger in defence of your Majesty's, and your royal posterity's, only rightful title to the crown of Great Britain.
" ' Our behaviour shall always witness for us, that with unalterable firmness and zeal, we are, may it please your Majesty, your Majesty's most loyal, most obedient, and most dutiful subjects and servants. '
" Signed by 102 persons of weight and respectability. "
The foregoing may have been a " cause " of disaffection, but the student of Scottish history will be inclined to look a
little further back for the "real cause" of the rebellion of 1715. The union of the crowns took place in 1606, and a good deal of disaffection was expressed then, especially in the Highlands. The overthrow of the Stuart dynasty in 1689 almost brought matters to a climax, for then the clans " vowed they would have a king of their own, and that a Stuart he should be. " At this period a number of families intrigued with the Court of France and the Pretender to the crown of Great Britain, who called himself James VIII. of Scotland and III. of England. The outcome of this intrigue was that, in 1708, seven years before the outburst in 1715, he, along with the French Admiral Fourbin, and 4, 000 men appeared off Montrose, and then in the Firth of Forth, but fled before Byng the British admiral.
On the accession of George I. —the very occasion of the " address " referred to, and yet the feeling as expressed there may have been quite genuine, but it had been short lived— we find that the Earl of Mar was among the first to raise the standard of rebellion. On the 20th of August 1715, he assembled a number of Jacobites from both sides of the Grampians, presumably for a grand hunt at Braemar, when he avowed his real intentions; and shortly afterwards James VIII. was proclaimed king. Mar made Perth his headquarters, where he soon gathered together an army of 12, 000 men.
It was expected that the greater part of England would have risen at this time, but only Northumberland responded. Argyll beat the rebels at Sheriffmuir the same day that they suffered defeat at Preston, in England; and with the flight of the Pretender ended the first serious attempt to replace the Stuarts on the throne.
Five years later Charles Edward, the son of James, afterwards known as Prince Charles, was born, and in 1743, when he was in his twenty-third year, Cardinal Tencin, Prime Minister to Louis XV. of France, determined to support his claim to the throne of Great Britain and Ireland. With this object in view, an invading army about 15, 000 strong assembled at Dunkirk; vessels were provided to transport them across the channel, and men-of-war to protect them. Charles Edward was to lead in person; Marshal Saxe, a distinguished general of the time, second in command, and the design was to land on the coast of Kent. The fleet set sail, but a British squadron, under Sir John Norris, had been collected in the channel to intercept the invaders, and the Frenchmen learning this made off. They were over-

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