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Prestonpans and Vicinity

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On the morning of the 20th, Charles, with his Highlanders, left Duddingston, and set out to meet the foe.
They drew up at Carberry Hill, but finding Cope had kept down towards Preston, the Highlanders directed their course by Fawside and Birslie, even til! they came in sight of the enemy, when they roused a shout of defiance, which was heartily responded to by the Royalists at Preston.
Cope took up his position with Preston Loch directly in front of him. The whole of that afternoon was spent by both armies in evolutions, the Highlanders shifting down latterly towards Tranent.
In the evening a party of Highlanders entering by the west-end of Tranent proceeded down the Heuch and stationed themselves in the churchyard, some five hundred yards off the Royal army, but they were observed and compelled to beat a retreat.
The Highlanders pitched their tents for the night a little to the west of Tranent, on what is now the old, but was then the main post-road, and lay in a field of peas. During the night, Mr Robert Anderson of Whitburgh, son of Mr Anderson at that period proprietor and occupier of Wester Windygoul, Tranent, explained to his friend Hepburn of Keith that he knew of a better mode of attack than that which the Highlanders in council had resolved to follow. Hepburn advised him to acquaint Lord George Murray at once with the information, and to his lordship the plan appeared so eligible that he did not hesitate a moment to use the same freedom with the Prince as young Anderson had used with him. The Prince sat up in his bed of pea-straw and listened to the scheme with great attention, called a council at once, and had the plan approved of.
Anderson being a native of the district knew every inch of the ground. His scheme was to go round the south side of Tranent eastwards, over Tranent Muir northwards, and down by Riggonhead to Seton; then coming in by Meadowmill westwards, to take the Royal forces unawares from behind. And on the Saturday morning, 2ist, about three o'clock, the movement was begun.
In drawing up the army some difficulty arose as to who should form the right wing. The honour was ultimately assigned to Clan Cola, because the Bruce had assigned that honour to these M'Donalds at Bannockburn. The Camerons under Lochiel, and Stuarts of Appin under Ardshiel, composed the left wing; while the Duke of Perth's men under Major James Drummond, and the Clan M'Gregor with Glencairney, filled the centre. The Duke of Perth commanded the right wing, and Lord George Murray the left. The Athol men, the Robertsons, the M'Donalds of Glencoe, and the M'Lauchlans, under Lord Nairn, formed a second line some fifty yards behind. The Prince took his place between the lines. The Highland army consisted in all of 2400 men. When the alarm gun fired, Charles thus addressed his men: " Follow me, gentlemen, and by the assistance of God, I will this day make you a free and happy people. "
Cope, who is said to have passed the night at Cockenzie, on learning that the Highlanders were moving, hastened to join his troops; and in order to meet the foemen face to face he changed the position of his army, disposing his men so that from facing the south they looked towards the east, their front forming almost a direct line with the old waggon-way from where Meadowmill now stands to the village of Cockenzie. The artillery remained on the right with Colonel Whitney's squadron of cavalry in the rear between them and the infantry, the want of space for Colonel Gardiner's squadron to manoeuvre causing his dragoons to form a second line behind Colonel Whitney's.
Scarcely were the men in position when they beheld looming through the mist the advance guard of the Highland army. They advanced on their knees as if in the act of deerstalking, and hoped in this manner to take their enemy unawares. The real state of affairs was soon discovered, and the Royalists firing off their pistols, hastened back to make known the approach of the Highlanders.
Seeing they were discovered, three bodies of Highlanders advanced at once with the greatest impetuosity, attacking the right wing, where the artillery with Whitney's and Gardiner's dragoons were placed.
Just then the Royalist artillery belched forth what might have been a murderous fire upon the approaching foe, but terror had already seized them, and grapeshot and cannister alike flew harmlessly over their heads.
The Highlanders, after discharging their muskets, threw them away, and drawing their broadswords, with hideous yells fell foul upon their enemy.
The Camerons under Lochiel were the first to grapple with the foe. Sweeping past the cannon they found themselves directly in front of Whitney's dragoons who were advancing to meet them, but halting at the first onset, they wheeled about,
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