1. Treason: The Immortal Seven's invitation to William of Orange to invade England - June 30th 1688 ...
1: Yes, England was invaded by the Dutch on November 8th 1688 - by invitation of Seven 'Immortal' Traitors 330 years ago
This is the first of a series of 'Jacobite Tales' that will be appearing here in the coming months as the 1745 Battle Trust begins to identify a 'Jacobite Trail' across England, Ireland, Scotland & the Continent.
Plotting began as early as 1686 in Dorset, at Charborough House, the family home of Thomas Erle MP. He was determined to "overthrow the tyrant race of the Stuarts".
Erle was Deputy Lord Lieutenant of Dorset from 1685 but he had no patience for Catholic monarchs. The birth of a son to Catholic James II & VII by his second and Catholic wife, Queen Mary of Modena, on June 10th 1688 brought matters to a head. Erle's Arms appear here below and the magnificent Stag above the Gate to Charborough today.
His initiative was followed up by three nobles - Earl of Devonshire, fourth son of Earl of Holderness and the Earl of Danby at The Cock & Pynot [known today as Revolution House] after a shooting trip. These three composed a letter to William of Orange inviting him to take the throne with his wife Mary - James' protestant daughter by his first wife. Devonshire led these initiatives further and by June 30th 1688 'Seven Immortals' had finalised an Invitation* despatched to William that gave him the justification he sought to land at Brixham, Torbay on November 5th and to march on London. The seven signatories, The Immortals, were Devonshire, Shrewsbury, Danby, Lumley, Russell, Sidney and The Bishop of London.
Erle and all seven Immortals did well from their treachery +. The success of their initiative was dubbed The Glorious Revolution. Each of the individuals [save the Bishop who later officiated at William's Coronation but was twice denied The Primacy at Canterbury] was elevated in rank - Earls rising to Dukes. Erle himself went on to fight for William in Ireland at the Battle of the Boyne and the Siege of Limerick. He rose from Colonel to Lieutenant General, Commander-in-Chief in Ireland, Lord Justice of Ireland, MP for Cork City in the Irish Parliament and Governor of Portsmouth. From 1715-1718 he was Father of The House of Commons.
The significance of this history is that it pinpoints the 'origins' of Jacobitism - the century long quest to restore the Stuarts to the throne.
Victory at Prestonpans by James II & VII's grandson Bonnie Prince Charlie was perhaps the closest the Jacobites ever came to realising their goal. As such it is perhaps no surprise that the Battle Trust together with the Scottish Battlefields Trust is intent on creating an international Jacobite Trail. From 1688 till the death of the last Jacobite 'monarch' Henry IX in 1807 the loyal toast was perforce 'The King o'er the Water'. In exile the Jacobite Court went first to France and then to Rome.
The Seven Men of Moidart were less fortunate!
Talking of Seven Immortals ... Bonnie Prince Charlie famously landed from La Doutelle on Eriskay in July 1745 with just seven major supporters, subsequently know as the Seven Men of Moidart.. These 'Seven' were William Murray, Marquess of Tullibardine, Sir Thomas Sheridan, Sir John MacDonald of MacDonnell, Aeneas MacDonald, Colonel John William O'Sullivan, Rev. George Kelly, and Colonel Francis Strickland. They saw no elevation. Murray was captured after Culloden and died in the Tower of London. Sir John MacDonald surrendered and reached France after a prisoner exchange. Kelly, O'Sullivan and Sheridan like The Prince, escaped to France. Aeneas was captured but later released and Strickland died of natural causes in Carlisle.
The Letter of Invitation* - sent in code dated June 30th 1688
We have great satisfaction to find by 35 [Russell], and since by Monsieur Zuylestein, later Earl of Rochford that your Highness is so ready and willing to give us such assistances as they have related to us. We have great reason to believe we shall be every day in a worse condition than we are, and less able to defend ourselves, and therefore we do earnestly wish we might be so happy as to find a remedy before it be too late for us to contribute to our own deliverance. But although these be our wishes, yet we will by no means put your Highness into any expectations which may misguide your own councils in this matter; so that the best advice we can give is to inform your Highness truly both of the state of things here at this time and of the difficulties which appear to us.
As to the first, the people are so generally dissatisfied with the present conduct of the government in relation to their religion, liberties and properties (all which have been greatly invaded), and they are in such expectation of their prospects being daily worse, that your Highness may be assured there are nineteen parts of twenty of the people throughout the kingdom who are desirous of a change, and who, we believe, would willingly contribute to it, if they had such a protection to countenance their rising as would secure them from being destroyed before they could get to be in a posture able to defend themselves. It is no less certain that much the greatest part of the nobility and gentry are as much dissatisfied, although it be not safe to speak to many of them beforehand; and there is no doubt but that some of the most considerable of them would venture themselves with your Highness at your first landing, whose interests would be able to draw great numbers to them whenever they could protect them and the raising and drawing men together. And if such a strength could be landed as were able to defend itself and them till they could be got together into some order, we make no question but that strength would quickly be increased to a number double to the army here, although their army should all remain firm to them; whereas we do upon very good grounds believe that their army then would be very much divided among themselves, many of the officers being so discontented that they continue in their service only for a subsistence (besides that some of their minds are known already), and very many of the common soldiers do daily shew such an aversion to the popish religion that there is the greatest probability imaginable of great numbers of deserters which would come from them should there be such an occasion; and amongst the seamen it is almost certain there is not one in ten who would do them any service in such a war.
Besides all this. we do much doubt whether this present state of things will not yet be much changed to the worse before another year, by a great alteration which will probably be made both in the officers and soldiers of the army, and by such other changes as are not only to be expected from a packed Parliament. but what the meeting of any Parliament (in our present circumstances) may produce against those who will be looked upon as principal obstructers of their proceedings there, it being taken for granted that if things cannot then be carried to their wishes in a parliamentary way other measures will be put in execution by more violent means; and although such proceedings will then heighten the discontents, yet such courses will probably be taken at that time as will prevent all possible means of relieving ourselves.
These considerations make us of opinion that this is a season in which we may more probably contribute to our own safeties than hereafter (although we must own to your Highness there are some judgments differing from ours in this particular), insomuch that if the circumstances stand so with your Highness that you believe you can get here time enough, in a condition to give assistances this year sufficient for a relief under these circumstances which have been now represented, we who subscribe this will not fail to attend your Highness upon your landing and to do all that lies in our power to prepare others to be in as much readiness as such an action is capable of, where there is so much danger in communicating an affair of such a nature till it be near the time of its being made public. But, as we have already told your Highness, we must also lay our difficulties before your Highness, which are chiefly, that we know not what alarm your preparations for this expedition may give, or what notice it will be necessary for you to give the States beforehand, by either of which means their intelligence or suspicions here may be such as may cause us to be secured before your landing. And we must presume to inform your Highness that your compliment upon the birth of the child (which not one in a thousand here believes to be the queen's) hath done you some injury, the false imposing of that upon the princess and the nation being not only an infinite exasperation of people's minds here, but being certainly one of the chief causes upon which the declaration of your entering the kingdom in a hostile manner must be founded on your part. although many other reasons are to be given on ours.
If upon a due consideration of all these circumstances your Highness shall think fit to adventure upon the attempt, or at least to make such preparations for it as are necessary (which we wish you may), there must be no more time lost in letting us know your resolution concerning it, and in what time we may depend that all the preparations will be ready, as also whether your Highness does believe the preparations can be so managed as not to give them warning here, both to make them increase their force and to secure those they shall suspect would join with you. We need not say anything about ammunition, artillery, mortar pieces, spare arms, &c.. because if you think fit to put anything in execution you will provide enough of these kinds. and will take care to bring some good engineers with you; and we have desired Mr. H[erbert] to consult you about all such matters, to whom we have communicated our thoughts in many particulars too tedious to have been written, and about which no certain resolutions can be taken till we have heard again from your Highness.
[Signed/ see further below] 25. [Earl of Shrewsbury] 24. [Earl of Devonshire] 27. [Earl of Danby] 29. [Viscount Lumley] 31. [Bishop of London] 35. [Russell]. 33. [Sidney].
*(Sir John Dalrymple, Memoirs of Great Britain and Ireland, App., I, pp. 228-231)
•Charles Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury (i.e. 25)
•William Cavendish, Earl of Devonshire (i.e. 24)
•Thomas Osborne, Earl of Danby (i.e. 27)
•Richard Lumley, Lord Lumley (i.e. 29)
•Henry Compton, Bishop of London (i.e. 31)
•Edward Russell (i.e. 35)
•Henry Sidney (i.e. 33)
+ The first five of these men were members of the House of Lords. Lord Talbot received the title "Duke of Shrewsbury" from the Prince of Orange in 1694. Lord Cavendish had earlier been an advocate of the exclusion of the Duke of York from succession to the throne as James II & VII; he received the title "Duke of Devonshire" from the Prince of Orange in 1694. Lord Danby received the title "Marquess of Carmathen" from the Prince of Orange in 1689 and the title "Duke of Leeds" in 1694. Lord Lumley was a famous convert from Catholicism to Protestantism; he received the title "Viscount Lumley" from the Prince of Orange in 1689 and the title "Earl of Scarborough" in 1690. Bishop Compton crowned the Prince and Princess of Orange in 1689. Edward Russell had been in the service of the Prince of Orange since 1683; he received the title "Earl of Orford" from the Prince of Orange in 1695. Henry Sidney had been groom of the bedchamber to James, Duke of York, and master of horse to Anne, Duchess of York; he then served as English envoy to the Hague from 1679 to 1681 and General of the British regiments in the Dutch service from 1681 to 1685; he received the title "Viscount Sidney" from the Prince of Orange in 1689 and the title "Earl of Romney" in 1694.
The "Mr. H." mentioned at the end of the message is Arthur Herbert. He served as a rear-admiral in the Royal Navy, but was cashiered when he refused to serve with Catholic officers after the Declaration of Indulgence. He commanded the fleet which conveyed the Prince of Orange to England and received the title "Earl of Torrington" from the Prince of Orange in 1689.
Published Date: June 30th 2018